In 2022, the national real estate development investment decreased by 10.0%.

I. Completion of investment in real estate development

In 2022, the national real estate development investment was 13,289.5 billion yuan, down 10.0% from the previous year; Among them, residential investment was 10,064.6 billion yuan, down 9.5%.

In 2022, the housing construction area of real estate development enterprises was 9,049.99 million square meters, down 7.2% from the previous year. Among them, the residential construction area was 6,396.96 million square meters, down by 7.3%. The newly started housing area was 1,205.87 million square meters, down by 39.4%. Among them, the newly started residential area was 881.35 million square meters, down 39.8%. The completed housing area was 862.22 million square meters, down by 15.0%. Among them, the completed residential area was 625.39 million square meters, down by 14.3%.

Second, the sale and sale of commercial housing

In 2022, the sales area of commercial housing was 1,358.37 million square meters, a decrease of 24.3% over the previous year, of which the sales area of residential housing decreased by 26.8%. The sales of commercial housing was 13,330.8 billion yuan, down by 26.7%, of which residential sales fell by 28.3%.

By the end of 2022, the area of commercial housing for sale was 563.66 million square meters, an increase of 10.5% over the previous year. Among them, the residential area for sale increased by 18.4%.

Three, the real estate development enterprise funds in place

In 2022, real estate development enterprises received 14,897.9 billion yuan, down 25.9% from the previous year. Among them, domestic loans were 1,738.8 billion yuan, down by 25.4%; Foreign capital utilization was 7.8 billion yuan, down by 27.4%; Self-raised funds were 5,294 billion yuan, down by 19.1%; Deposits and advance receipts were 4,928.9 billion yuan, down 33.3%; Personal mortgage loans reached 2,381.5 billion yuan, down 26.5%.

Fourth, the real estate development boom index

In December 2022, the real estate development boom index (referred to as "national housing boom index") was 94.35.

Table 1 National Real Estate Development and Sales from January to December, 2022

Click to download:Related data table

Table 2 Investment in real estate development in the eastern, central and western regions and northeast regions from January to December, 2022

Table 3 Real estate sales in the eastern, central and western regions and northeast regions from January to December, 2022


1. Interpretation of indicators

Investment completed by real estate development enterprises this year: refers to all the investment completed during the reporting period for housing construction projects, land development projects, public welfare buildings and land purchase fees. This indicator is cumulative data.

Sales area of commercial housing: refers to the total contracted area of newly-built commercial housing sold during the reporting period (i.e. the construction area confirmed in the formal sales contract signed by both parties). This indicator is cumulative data.

Sales of commercial housing: refers to the total contract price of selling new commercial housing during the reporting period (i.e. the total contract price confirmed in the formal sales contract signed by both parties). This indicator is the same caliber as the sales area of commercial housing, and it is also cumulative data.

Sale area of commercial housing: refers to the construction area of commercial housing that has been completed for sale or lease at the end of the reporting period, but has not been sold or leased, including the housing areas completed in previous years and completed in this period, but excluding the housing areas that have been completed in the reporting period, such as demolition and reconstruction, unified construction and agent construction, public supporting buildings, real estate companies’ own use and revolving houses, which cannot be sold or leased.

Funds paid by real estate development enterprises this year: refers to all kinds of monetary funds and source channels actually used by real estate development enterprises for real estate development during the reporting period. It is subdivided into domestic loans, utilization of foreign capital, self-raised funds, deposits and advance receipts, personal mortgage loans and other funds. This indicator is cumulative data.

Housing construction area: refers to the total housing construction area constructed by real estate development enterprises during the reporting period. Including the area newly started in this period, the area of houses that entered this period in the previous period and continued to be constructed, the area of houses that were suspended in the previous period and resumed construction in this period, the area of houses completed in this period and the area of houses that were suspended after construction in this period. The construction area of multi-storey buildings refers to the sum of the construction areas of each floor.

Newly started housing area: refers to the newly started housing area of real estate development enterprises during the reporting period, with unit projects as the accounting object. It does not include the construction area of houses that started construction in the last period and continued construction in the reporting period, and the construction area that stopped construction in the last period and resumed work in this period. The construction of the house shall be based on the date when the house officially begins to break ground and dig trenches (foundation treatment or permanent piling). The newly started building area refers to the total building area of the whole building and cannot be calculated separately.

Completed building area: refers to the total building area of all buildings that have been completed according to the design requirements, reached the living and use conditions, passed the acceptance inspection or reached the completion acceptance standard, and can be officially handed over for use during the reporting period.

Land purchase area: refers to the land area where real estate development enterprises have obtained land use rights through various means this year.

Land transaction price: refers to the final amount of land use right trading activities of real estate development enterprises. In the primary land market, it refers to the final allocation of land, the "bidding, auction and auction" price and the transfer price; In the secondary market of land, it refers to the final contract price of land transfer, lease and mortgage. The land transaction price is the same as the land purchase area, and the average purchase price of land can be calculated.

2. Statistical scope

All real estate development and operation legal entities with development and operation activities.

3. Investigation methods

Conduct a comprehensive survey on a monthly basis (except January).

4. Brief description of the national real estate development boom index.

The national real estate development boom index (hereinafter referred to as "national housing boom index") follows the theory of economic cycle fluctuation, is based on the boom cycle theory and boom cycle analysis method, uses time series, multivariate statistics and econometric analysis methods, takes real estate development investment as the benchmark index, selects relevant indicators of real estate investment, capital, area and sales, and excludes the influence of seasonal factors, including random factors. It is compiled by the growth rate cycle method, and is compiled monthly according to the newly added data. The national housing boom index chooses 2012 as the base year and sets its growth level at 100. Under normal circumstances, the national housing boom index is 100 points, which is the most suitable boom level, with a moderate boom level between 95 and 105 points, a low boom level below 95 and a high boom level above 105.

5. Division of East, Central, West and Northeast China

The eastern region includes 10 provinces (cities) including Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong, Guangdong and Hainan; The central region includes six provinces of Shanxi, Anhui, Jiangxi, Henan, Hubei and Hunan. The western region includes 12 provinces (cities and autonomous regions) including Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang. Northeast China includes Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces.

Real estate is to incite domestic demand fulcrum to save the economy, is it necessary to save housing prices?

  Ten years ago, one of the fulcrums to incite domestic demand was real estate, and it will still be ten years later. However, the previous reliance was on the commercial housing market, and this time the foothold will be affordable housing.

  "After buying a house for two years, business tax will no longer be levied, and the strength of the policy exceeds market expectations." On the evening of 17th, a real estate agent manager in Shanghai couldn’t hide his surprise on the phone. Stunned. On that day, the the State Council executive meeting just studied and determined three measures to promote the healthy development of the property market.

  The central government has also reserved a lot of space for local governments to "rescue the market": all regions should adjust measures to local conditions and "further adopt policies and measures to promote the healthy development of the real estate market".

  Looking back on 2008, from the intensive control object of macro policy to being positioned as "an important pillar industry of national economy" again; From trying every means to stabilize the soaring price and cool down the investment speculation, to using credit and tax policies to stimulate demand by all means; From queuing up all night to freezing sales. The real estate industry has gone through this year. How to treat the adjustment of building administration? Do we have to save the property market to save the economy? Must the house price be guaranteed to save the property market?

  Do we have to save the property market to save the economy?

  Some people even doubt the "justice" of saving the property market. In this regard, financial columnist Wu Xiaobo said, "The government has its moral justice to save the market at this moment."

  On December 10th, Morgan Stanley Research Department released the latest economic research report on China, and held that the typical feature of China’s economy in 2009 was "deterioration followed by improvement", but real estate investment was the biggest uncertain factor to judge the growth expectation in 2009.

  In the composition of fixed assets investment in the whole society, real estate investment, which is closely related to more than 50 industries, ranks first in the world. As of July 2008, the sum of electric power, heat energy, transportation and water conservancy environment accounted for less than 25% of fixed assets investment, manufacturing investment exceeded 30%, and real estate investment accounted for more than 33%. This determines that infrastructure investment alone is not enough to prop up economic growth, and pure government investment is also difficult to make up for the decline in real estate and manufacturing investment.

  Not to mention the dependence of local finance on real estate. Taking a district of a city in the east as an example, the fiscal revenue in 2005 was 12.4 billion yuan, of which 6.4 billion yuan was turned over to the city and the central government, and the local disposable fiscal revenue was 6 billion yuan; Among them, 2 billion yuan must be "rewarded" to industrial enterprises according to the investment agreement, and the local actual disposable tax revenue is 4 billion yuan. The tax revenue contributed by the real estate industry in that year (including central tax and local tax) reached 2.8 billion yuan, as well as 1.2 billion yuan of supporting fees for large real estate municipalities collected by hitchhiking and about 2 billion yuan of land transfer fees in that year, which were not included in the fiscal account and were used outside the system. In this way, among the 7.2 billion yuan of government funds actually available at the district and street (township) levels, the real estate industry has created more than 5 billion yuan.

  In this case, re-boosting the real estate industry has become an important choice to promote investment and protect the economy. Real estate has been promoted to "an important pillar industry of the national economy" and "affordable housing project" has been listed as the first of the "Ten National Articles", so the policy mix clearly conveys the orientation that "saving the economy must save the real estate first" and "promoting investment cannot be separated from stabilizing the property market".

  "I wonder, what are the similarities and differences between starting domestic demand under the financial tsunami in 2008 and stimulating domestic demand under the Asian financial storm in 1998?" Hu Yijian, a professor at the School of Public Economics and Management of Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, said, "Ten years ago, one of the fulcrums to incite domestic demand was real estate, and it will still be ten years later. However, the previous time relied on the commercial housing market, and this time the foothold was affordable housing. "

  Must the house price be guaranteed to save the property market?

  As the year draws near, developers are even more hungry for funds, and discount promotion patterns are constantly being refurbished. In Changsha, Hunan Province, there is even a developer’s activity of "buying facial cleanser and sending it to the house". A real estate agency negotiated with the developer to launch a sales model: citizens buy facial cleanser, liquor and other consumer goods through the company, and every time they spend more than 1,500 yuan, they will give a 1 square meter house, buy more and send more. After making up a house area, you can exchange it for a house from the developer.

  How to fully release the normal housing consumption demand? The fundamental point is to improve purchasing power. There are two ways to improve purchasing power. One is to increase income, which is almost impossible when the economy enters the downward cycle. The second is to reduce housing prices, which is the most practical way at present.

  Different from the expectations of a few wealthy people when they invest in housing, a large number of working-class people consume housing based on reality. As long as the house price is adjusted back to its purchasing power range, or even "within reach", they will enter the market. When the real estate market is a consumer market, the most important issue for housing buyers is their ability to pay rather than their confidence. Recently, some properties of Country Garden, a real estate tycoon, are selling well in a weak market. One of the important reasons is that they are low in total price and high in cost performance. In recent years, the prices of some high-quality properties developed by Country Garden are close to the prices of affordable housing. The example of Country Garden shows that only standing on the basis of consumers’ purchasing power can bring lasting demand for the property market.

  Professor Yin Bocheng, an economist, believes that since the Central Economic Work Conference clearly stated that "reducing the burden of residents’ reasonable purchase of self-occupied ordinary commercial housing and giving full play to the positive role of real estate in expanding domestic demand", it is time to return to the origin of purchasing power to observe the property market problem.

  As for the tax rebate for buying houses, which is widely circulated in the market at present, it is only attractive to high-income people. Our reporter once asked two high-income earners whether they would consider buying a house if the principal and interest paid by the purchaser to the bank were deducted from the personal income tax base. A professor from Shanghai University of Finance and Economics replied: It depends on the deduction time. If the deduction time is long, you will consider investing in real estate; If there is no tax rebate incentive, I will not consider buying a house now. Because he already has three houses, he just sold one in early 2008. A president of a securities company who began to be laid off in the second quarter of 2008 replied: If the tax is refunded, I will not be in a hurry to receive my salary and bonus in the first quarter of this year, and I will receive it after deducting the purchase of a house. Obviously, the tax rebate policy for purchasing houses that has been introduced in Chongqing and other places is effective in stimulating real estate investment, but the side effect is that it may continue to blow up the bubble and bring new injustice.

  "Stable transaction volume" or "stable house price"?

  The Central Economic Work Conference proposed that one of the key tasks of economic work next year is to "maintain the stable and healthy development of the real estate market". Is the key to stabilizing the property market to "stabilize the transaction volume" or "stabilize the house price"?

  This must be clear about the real estate market, what is the first need of the current government? It is real estate investment that drives economic growth and the jobs it creates, followed by taxes and land transfer fees from the real estate industry. In other words, for the government, it is more important to maintain high real estate turnover than to maintain high housing prices. Only by appropriately lowering the price in exchange for the transaction volume can the real estate investment continue, because the inventory is counterproductive to the investment. The more vacant stock houses, the smaller the prosperity of future investment, and the terminal sales volume is the first factor to ensure the investment to run. If the sky-high price is low (as has happened in some cities since the third quarter of this year), the so-called price has no market and the sales freeze will force the investment to drop sharply. In the end, the government can neither get taxes from real estate nor even guarantee jobs.

  In a word, the root of stimulating domestic demand with real estate consumption is to reduce prices, run volume and pull investment to drive employment and protect the overall situation.

  From this perspective, we can correctly understand why the Central Economic Work Conference proposed that "the desire of residents to improve their living conditions reasonably should be combined with the role of real estate as a pillar industry", that "the supply of affordable housing should be increased, the burden of residents’ reasonable purchase of self-occupied ordinary commercial housing should be reduced, and that real estate should play an active role in expanding domestic demand", and that the the State Council executive meeting on the 17th called for "guiding real estate development enterprises to actively respond to market changes and promote the sale of commercial housing" in studying and deploying policies and measures to promote the healthy development of the property market. (Reporter: Xu Shousong)

The State Council issued several opinions on promoting the healthy development of the real estate market.

  On the 21st, the General Office of the State Council published "Several Opinions on Promoting the Healthy Development of the Real Estate Market" on the Chinese government website. The opinion puts forward that the construction of affordable housing should be strengthened to further improve the living conditions of the people and promote the healthy development of the real estate market.

  The State Council executive meeting deployed measures to promote the healthy development of real estate market.

  Wen Jiabao, Prime Minister of the State Council, presided over the the State Council executive meeting on 17th to study and deploy policies and measures to promote the healthy development of the real estate market.

  The central bank and the China Banking Regulatory Commission jointly issued measures: the interest rate of low-rent housing construction loans will drop by 10%

  On the 17th, the central bank and the China Banking Regulatory Commission jointly issued the Measures for the Administration of Low-rent Housing Construction Loans, which stipulated that the interest rate of low-rent housing construction loans should be lowered by 10% according to the benchmark interest rate of loans of the same grade in the same period published by the People’s Bank of China.

  The National Development and Reform Commission issued a central subsidy of 10 billion yuan for the construction of affordable housing.

  According to the introduction of the National Development and Reform Commission on the 17th, the National Development and Reform Commission recently issued a 10 billion yuan central subsidy investment plan to speed up the construction of low-rent housing and the renovation of shanty towns in state-owned forest areas, reclamation areas and coal mines, as well as to expand the pilot renovation of dilapidated houses in rural areas.

  Supporting the bottom, activating and working together-interpretation of three key words of the new policy of the property market

  "At present, we must adhere to the basic direction of housing marketization and the principle of implementing the housing security system for low-income people with housing difficulties …"

  The two "Persistences" clearly put forward by the the State Council executive meeting on 17th not only show the government’s determination to increase the construction of affordable housing, but also show the attitude of adopting more active economic policies to activate the ordinary commodity housing market.

  Xinhua Viewpoint: Communication on Policy Adjustment of Current Real Estate Market

  "Everything is available, and the policy is strong, exceeding market expectations." On the evening of 17th, an account manager of Daning Store of Zhongyuan Real Estate could not conceal his surprise on the phone. "Business tax will not be levied after buying a house for two years, but we thought it would take at least three years."

  The government has made all-round moves to stimulate the property market experts to interpret the four new policies in detail

  Yesterday (17th), Premier Wen Jiabao of the State Council presided over the the State Council executive meeting to study and deploy policies and measures to promote the healthy development of the real estate market.

  The transfer of houses over two years will be exempted from business tax, and the urban real estate tax will be cancelled.

  The Central Economic Work Conference, which ended on the 10th of this month, proposed that "the supply of affordable housing should be increased, the burden of reasonable housing purchase should be reduced, and the role of real estate in expanding domestic demand should be brought into play". Yesterday (December 17th), the the State Council executive meeting determined three measures to speed up the construction of affordable housing, encourage housing consumption and maintain a reasonable investment scale in real estate development.

  Year-end feature: three key words outline the confidence curve of the property market in 2008

  2008 is destined to be an extraordinary year for both the world and China.

  At the beginning of the year, Wang Shi first threw out the "inflection point theory"; As the tide of price reduction began to sweep across the national property market, in some cities with large bubbles, the phenomenon of supply interruption began to appear; What makes developers more stressed is the unprecedented calm wait-and-see attitude of home buyers. The continued downturn in the transaction means that the real estate market has fallen into a period of deep adjustment.

  The Blue Book looks forward to the real estate market in 2009: it will enter a long adjustment period.

  China Academy of Social Sciences pointed out in the 2009 Blue Book of Economy published in Beijing on the 2nd that the real estate market will enter a long adjustment period in 2009 under the influence of international and domestic economic situation and national macro-control policies.

  Year-end feature: The era of high housing prices is drifting away.

  Similar to the trend of the securities market, the real estate market in China has also cooled rapidly from the "boiling point" at the beginning of this year. Up to now, the market depression is still continuing. Although since the fourth quarter, the government has stepped up efforts to rescue the market, and the real estate market in major first-tier cities is slightly warming up, there are indications that some leading indicators of the real estate market are still not very optimistic.

Editor: Wang Jiaolong

There is a kind of "love" that a lesson is hard to find.

  Yin Desheng, a full-time psychological teacher at the Mental Health Education and Consultation Center of Tianjin University of Technology, organized a series of group activities with students to pursue happiness.

  "Happiness" class.

  Wang Xiaoling teaches "Love Psychology".

  Cao Aihua was invited to participate in the activities of the Teacher-Student Growth Salon organized by the Academic Council.

  Yang Li teaches "Happiness Class".

  Li Jianwei, a teacher from the Psychological Counseling Health Center of Tianjin Medical University, led the students to "assimilation and self-healing therapy of Chendan poetry".

  Shi Xiaochen, director of the office of Tianjin Normal University Student Mental Health Education Center, organized a love theme salon for students. This edition of photos is provided by the interviewed universities.

  What elective courses are most concerned and welcomed by college students? Yes, it’s a course of "falling in love", "talking about love" and "finding happiness" In recent years, many colleges and universities in our city have set up courses about happiness and love, among which "love class", "love class" and "happiness class" have received the most extensive attention. The two courses of "Love Psychology" and "Happiness Studies" in Tianjin University are both "popular", and the students said that "grabbing is ‘ Great happiness ’ " ; Nankai University’s "Sociology of Love" is deeply loved by students, and every course is a "big hit" … … These "explosive" courses were "snapped up in seconds" once they were opened. From understanding love, learning to love and harvesting happiness, some college students "shouted" from a distance: "I really need it!" Why are such courses so popular? In the past few days, the reporter has visited this.

  The teacher talks about "Love Psychology"

  "This is not a ‘ Take off the single class ’ "

  Snacks and drinks are placed beside the sign-in desk for self-help, accompanied by soothing background music, students are whispering in twos and threes, which not only makes the atmosphere happy and relaxed, but also helps to expand the circle of friends and get to know him/her from different colleges and grades … … Recently, a romantic "date" was held in Datong Activity Center of Beiyangyuan Campus of Tianjin University. This is not a blind date scene, but a practical lesson in the course of "Love Psychology" which was robbed by students every second.

  "This is not a ‘ Take off the single class ’ , also won’t teach too much ‘ Love skills ’ The course mainly helps students to improve their ability to love, and more importantly, value guidance. " Wang Xiaoling, a teacher of Tianjin University’s Mental Health Education Center who teaches "Love Psychology", solemnly declares this at every class. This course of Mr. Wang focuses on helping students to cultivate higher-order thinking and establish a correct view of love, marriage and family. Not only can they learn to deal with love conflicts, but they can also learn to love themselves, others and their country. Therefore, the criterion for evaluating the learning effect of "Love Psychology" is not whether students are "detached" or not, their love status and emotional experience, but how to make love have a broader content: how to communicate with others, how to improve their love ability, including loving themselves, their family and their country, and how to sublimate from "little love" to "great love".

  Setting up "Love Psychology" is not a whim, but a response to students’ eager needs.

  For more than 10 years, Wang Xiaoling has carried out mental health education teaching, psychological consultation, crisis intervention and supervision for teachers and students of Tianda University, and found that emotional confusion is a very important part of daily consultation. A few days ago, an organization launched a questionnaire survey for 1028 college students across the country, and the results showed that 88.23% of them supported it. "Many ‘ 00 ’ Students have problems in interpersonal relationships, love, parent-child relationships and learning guidance, and their ability to cope with complex emotional problems and business relationships is insufficient. In addition to mastering professional knowledge and skills, we need stable emotional support to mature our personality and establish lofty ideals and ambitions. " After accumulating a large number of consulting cases at work, Wang Xiaoling gradually came up with the idea of opening a "love class".

  "Love courses don’t just teach students how to fall in love. Love and marriage involve psychology, ethics, sociology and other multidisciplinary knowledge, and are closely related to outlook on life and values. It is helpful for young people to clarify all kinds of problems in love. If you can’t figure out some common problems in love and can’t do them well, it will often affect life, study and many other aspects. " Wang Xiaoling said.

  As a public elective course in the first class of the school, how can "Love Psychology" be both theoretical and practical, so that young students can really benefit?

  For this reason, the curriculum group has set up a diversified teaching team composed of psychological teachers, full-time ideological and political teachers and counselors, and conducted regular teaching seminars. The teaching content reflects the interdisciplinary integration, integrates the knowledge of psychology, art, philosophy, engineering, law and other disciplines, and enhances students’ ability to love. Understanding love, attachment, conflict coping and relationship maintenance … … The content of the course is excavated from practical problems, and each problem is the love trouble that students encounter in reality.

  The popularity of love courses is inseparable from the diverse, lively and interesting curriculum. In addition to theoretical study and interpretation of examples, Wang Xiaoling and his team have also set up many interactive and practical links that make students’ sense of participation and experience "bursting". For example, they specially arrange homework after class to let students conduct psychological interviews with their parents and explore the influence of family of origin on their marriage and love; Specially arrange "simulated confession" to improve students’ ability to "express love", cultivate courage and overcome fear; Innovatively design the "simulated quarrel" link, so that students can learn to put themselves in other’s shoes, understand each other, express their feelings reasonably, and cultivate their ability to maintain love … … These dynamic courses are naturally popular. "Many students also bring their parents to attend classes together, which not only deepens mutual understanding, but also allows young people to have further thinking and cognition about marriage and family relations." Wang Xiaoling said.

  In the course, Wang Xiaoling also designed voluntary activities, such as organizing campus networking activities around May 20th or November 11th, which were completed spontaneously by students who took elective courses, so as to improve their interpersonal communication and activity organization ability, and also to increase their chances of meeting romantics on campus. The enthusiasm of students to participate in activities is very high.

  Student said

  "Through ‘ Love class ’ In our study and practice activities, we can experience different roles such as planners, volunteers and participants, and have rich thinking perspectives. Besides gaining professional knowledge and cultivating positive emotional attitudes, we can also improve our abilities in organization, coordination, communication, design, hosting and teamwork, and improve our ability to express love in various fields. " Li Junhao, a 2022 student from the School of Mechanical Engineering of Tianjin University who participated in the planning practice class, said.

  "We will improve the general course system such as" Love Psychology "according to the needs of students, and combine massive open online course resources to strengthen online and offline linkage, so that more young students can enhance their happiness through learning." Wang Xiaoling said.

  The teacher talks about "sociology of love"

  "Love needs to be learned."

  "Love needs to learn; Happiness is an ability. " Cao Aihua, an associate professor at the School of Sociology of Nankai University, put such a title on every slide of the courseware "Sociology of Love". "I want to tell students in this way why I want to open this course." Cao Aihua said.

  In 2018, Nankai University opened the undergraduate general elective course "Love Sociology". In the past five years, it has been carried out in two campuses for 12 rounds. Up to now, thousands of students have chosen courses, which has become one of the most popular courses in the school. Every time you choose a course, you must rely on "grabbing".

  Behind the popularity of the course is college students’ yearning for beautiful love. In addition, there are also many people who are attracted by the word "love" in the course title driven by curiosity. Last year, some institutions launched a questionnaire survey for college students across the country, and a total of 1296 valid questionnaires were collected from 283 colleges and universities. 75.23% of the students thought that schools and society should provide more psychological counseling for love or emotional relationships. 74.77% students expect the school to provide love education.

  "As a part of interpersonal communication, a good relationship can promote a person’s growth. The school agreed to offer courses related to love, with the aim of promoting students’ mental health development. " Cao Aihua said that the course "Sociology of Love" mainly teaches sociology, psychology and even physiology knowledge. These mature theories that have been scientifically tested can help students to establish a correct view of love and values, guide their words and deeds, and thus better handle interpersonal relationships.

  Student said

  "I yearn for a beautiful love of my own. When studying love as a course, I am curious about how different people treat love. " With this purpose in mind, Xiao Liu chose "Sociology of Love". After one semester, Xiao Liu said that "learning how to love others" is his greatest achievement. "Love goes both ways, and only by giving each other can we maintain a stable relationship."

  "Love needs to be learned, and love is an emotional education of love; Happiness is not only a subjective experience, but also an ability to manage relationships such as love, friendship and affection. When a person realizes that love is incompetent, don’t rush to establish a love relationship, because just wanting to take and not giving can only cause harm. A person must first learn to love himself. Only when his heart is full of love can he have the ability to love others and experience the sense of accomplishment and happiness of sharing love with others. " Cao Aihua said that this course especially emphasizes the integration of knowledge and practice. "Theoretical knowledge can be understood by speaking, and more importantly, it is in practice ‘ Line ’ Come out, so I want to design experiential and interactive classroom activities, so that students can practice while learning. Ability is practiced, and the ability to love can be improved. "

  Cao Aihua’s class will not only be explained from the perspectives of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory and Robert Jeffrey Sternberg triangular theory of love, but also be interspersed with classroom interactive activities such as love matching games, "love bank" group discussion, and drawing a life chart. At the same time, she will also use questionnaires to understand the reasons why students choose courses and the problems that need to be solved, and let students express their ideas through experiential interactions such as sitcoms. "In class, we will also discuss the performance of lack of love, how to love ourselves, and how to make love not hurt yourself or hurt others. I want to get to know students according to their feedback, and help them strengthen intergenerational communication through my sharing. Only by understanding them can we influence them and solve their problems, and this course can be more vital. " Cao Aihua said that she recently reviewed the homework of "Sociology of Love" this semester, and saw students sharing their love stories and self-analysis. Some students said, "Thanks to the teacher, in the process of getting along, I realized what a healthy relationship is like, and learned how to maintain and manage love in the interaction between couples", and some students said that "the pairing was successful through your class".

  The teacher talks about "happiness"

  "Don’t speak ‘ Truth ’ No irrigation ‘ Chicken soup ’ "

  The teacher takes you to sing, and if you have any ideas, you can send a barrage at any time … … This is the scene that the reporter recently saw the students taking "Happiness Studies" in the Tianjin Road Campus of Tian Dawei. Zhao Jianbo, the lecturer and deputy secretary of the Party Committee of the School of Earth System Science of Tianjin University, talked about how to adjust emotions and methods of emotional training from the conclusion of psychological experiments. Students sometimes take notes and sometimes interact with teachers through barrage.

  Student said

  "This course, I started from my sophomore year, and I only grabbed it in my senior year." "In the first class of Su Tuo, everyone changed from shy to active, and many students changed from ‘ I people ’ (Internet buzzwords, referring to people who are introverted) has become ‘ E ren ’ (Internet buzzwords refer to people who are extroverted.) "Some of the methods I learned in class, such as the A4 paper working method of target management, are now being practiced and practiced in my study." "Once a week ‘ Happiness studies ’ Classroom is a rare time for me to relax. " … … During the break, in a random interview with reporters, the students said one after another.

  What’s the "life code" in this general elective course that directly writes "happiness" on the course title?

  "There is no formula for happiness, but there is experience. In classroom teaching, we not only talk about the basic concepts of psychology, but also let students practice. Each part has practical and easy-to-operate practical methods to help students gain the ability to improve their happiness and make themselves happy. We think this is the most important. " Zhao Jianbo also said that the process of preparing lessons is also a process of decompressing and feeling happy for himself. "Teaching and learning learn from each other."

  "We don’t speak ‘ Truth ’ , no irrigation ‘ Chicken soup ’ , but science and experience. The teaching purpose of this course is not to help students find happiness ‘ The only and correct answer ’ But to activate students’ feelings of happiness. " Yang Li, a professor at Tianjin University Mental Health Education Center, said. The "happiness study" led by her began in the spring semester of 2021, and now it is the sixth time, covering more than a thousand students. A series of activities related to the course of Happiness Studies, such as "Happiness Lecture Hall", "Happy Four Seasons, Happy Beiyang", have benefited more than 10,000 students.

  "Happiness study" starts with "what is happiness" and discusses the "four fulcrums" of happiness with students — — Relationship and happiness, health and happiness, money and happiness, career and happiness; Carry out "Happiness Action" together — — Emotional adjustment, living in the present, adversity growth, target management, love and gratitude; Experience a happy life, a balanced life, a persevering life, a vigorous life and a warm and abundant life together & HELIP; …

  "In the same adversity, why do some people fall and others become stronger?" In the class of "Happiness", the teacher will take the students to learn "Seven Skills of Cultivating psychological resilience", learn about themselves and make changes, and then take out the "Happiness Manual of Tianjin University" compiled by the teaching team to work together as "My Resilience Resource Circle" to find out which resources they are more willing to use to help themselves out of the predicament when encountering setbacks and pressures … … Students learn not only various psychological theories in this course, but also action exercises to make themselves happy, so that happiness can be upgraded while learning and practicing.

  "At present, scholars at home and abroad are increasingly studying happiness and its related fields, so our teaching team prepares lessons collectively before class every semester, uniformly modifies and improves slides, introduces the latest research results into the classroom, and increases the theoretical and scientific nature of the course." Yang Li introduced that when the course content was designed, it integrated the knowledge and content related to happiness in positive psychology, clinical psychology, health psychology, China traditional culture and other disciplines and fields, and considered the characteristics and needs of college students to complement the mental health course for college students; In teaching, it combines theoretical teaching, psychological training, experiential activities and quality development, so that students can "learn by doing" and create experiential teaching, interactive teaching and participatory teaching; Curriculum assessment forms pay more attention to process assessment, and curriculum scores will also strive to make students "feel happy".

  In Yang Li’s view, by learning "happiness class", young students can increase their thinking about a happy life, know how to make themselves and others happier, gain a relaxed psychological experience and life state in an increasingly fast-paced life, calmly deal with difficulties and challenges in study, scientific research and life, and bravely face the uncertain future with an elastic and resilient psychological state.

  Facing the concept of love, each school has its own magic prescription.

  Faced with the realistic problems of marriage and love in the current society, many colleges and universities in our city actively construct and improve the marriage and love education system, strengthen the education of love psychology and family ethics, improve students’ ability of expression, communication and communication, and guide students to establish correct views on love, marriage and family, which are well received by students, and also help to cultivate healthy body and mind, improve personality, and let students learn to protect themselves and respect others.

  Tianjin Normal University has arranged a special lecture on love and intimate relationship management in the compulsory course of general education, for students to choose according to their interests.

  "The lectures are basically full every time." Shi Xiaochen, director of the Office of the Mental Health Education Center for Students in Normal University, said that the main content of her talk about "going to a windy place to fall in love" is to solve students’ confusion, including the inferiority complex of those who have never talked about love, how to speak out boldly for those who have a crush on love, how to deal with those who have lost love, etc. "There is no reference answer and correct answer, and I hope that through lectures, students can learn to protect themselves, love themselves and love others based on different stages of love.

  Li Xiao (pseudonym), a student who has just set foot in love, listened to Shi Xiaochen’s lecture with the idea of making his feelings more stable. "We should first cherish ourselves and let love naturally transition to marriage" impressed him deeply. He also helped his roommate who suffered from lovelorn to divert his attention and finally "come out" through Shi Xiaochen’s method of dealing with lovelorn. "The scientific method taught by the teacher solved my confusion."

  Li Jianwei, a teacher of the Psychological Counseling Health Center of Tianjin Medical University, added "self-healing therapy of assimilation of morning Dan poems" to his college students’ mental health class, and helped students adjust their emotions and relieve their pressure by reading poems. "Nowadays, young people are under great pressure, and love is one of the problems that students are deeply confused about, which can affect their study, life and even the sound development of their personality. Let everyone read poetry together, which can not only inherit and develop Chinese excellent traditional culture, but also touch its inner nature, thus helping it to improve and change. Judging from the current student feedback, this method works well. " Li Jianwei said.

  Since 2007, Tianjin University of Technology has offered the elective course of "Happiness Psychology", which enriches the course content in various ways, such as group counseling and artistic expression, and guides students to explore the meaning of life, feel love and warmth, better enjoy college life and improve their positive psychological quality. The course content also attracts students deeply, especially in universities of science and engineering, which gives young students more opportunities for self-exploration and interactive communication. "This course needs to give full play to students’ initiative, and there are many classroom experiences and contents shared by groups. In the classroom, teachers and students discuss and promote each other and gain love and strength." Professor Jiang Kun, the first lecturer of the course and vice minister of the Department of Education of Tianjin University of Technology, said.

  "In addition, the school also passed the compulsory course of general education ‘ Mental health education for college students ’ Zhong ‘ Establishment and maintenance of intimate relationship ’ And elective course ‘ Reading and a Happy Life ’ In combination with psychological counseling and questionnaire surveys, collect students’ needs for intimate relationships such as love and redesign the course. " Yin Desheng, a full-time psychological teacher at the Mental Health Education and Counseling Center of Tianjin University of Technology, said that since this year, they have added a lot of group counseling to this course, changing the course from giving lectures to interacting with classmates, and letting every student participate in it through warm-up activities, group discussions, painting exercises, situation setting, and role-playing of psychological dramas. Judging from the effect, the satisfaction degree of students in love group counseling and the teaching evaluation level of students in compulsory courses and elective courses are all A-level.

How does love affect our lives?

Original title: How does love affect our lives?

Love is one of the most beautiful emotions in life, which has a far-reaching impact on our lives.

First of all, love can bring happiness and happiness. When we fall in love, our brains release chemicals such as dopamine, which makes us feel happy and happy. These chemicals can make us feel more relaxed and happy, so that we are full of enthusiasm and vitality for life. Secondly, love can also bring growth and change. When we fall in love with someone, we will work hard to better meet each other’s expectations, so as to promote our continuous progress and growth. At the same time, we will be inspired and influenced by each other’s advantages, so as to change our own shortcomings and deficiencies. Finally, love can also bring pain and trouble. When we lose love, we will feel heartache and loss, and even lose confidence and hope in life. In addition, love will also make us face various challenges and difficulties, such as communication, trust, mutual support and so on.

Love is a double-edged sword, with both good side and painful side. Let’s learn to face the challenges and difficulties in love while enjoying the happiness and happiness brought by love.

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The true love of young people in small towns strikes back. Shanghai girls find happiness and true love in his interest

In the concept of dating, Shanghai girl Zhou Jie is indeed a bit "crazy". Under the traditional mindset of marriage equality and matching, Zhou Jie’s road to marriage seems to be getting narrower and narrower. With the increasing age and persistence in the inherent concept of mate selection, Zhou Jie has been "single". Looking at Zhou Jie, who is too high to be low, the girlfriends who are in a hurry have "pulled" her to his interest! Girlfriends think that so many people have successfully found the right partner in their own interests. How can Zhou Jie not?

To tell the truth, although Zhou Jie has always had some difficulties in making friends in marriage and love, and her personality and feelings have always been somewhat cold, she has a well-off family and a rich life working as a dance teacher, which can be called "high quality" in all aspects. No matter in his family in the same city or in his live broadcast room, Zhou Jie’s interaction with her friends will always show her high artistic talent and always attract the attention of many opposite sex. There are more and more opposite sex who take the initiative to chat up Zhou Jie in his interest, but Zhou Jie doesn’t seem to "call" them.

Including Zhou Jie herself and her girlfriends, no one expected the opportunity of true love to come. One day, a young man from Yunnan named Yang Hui finally let Zhou Jie "fall" in love. The two people were introduced to each other automatically by the system through his interesting voice speed matching function. Zhou Jie likes Yang Huifu’s magnetic voice, which is gentle and special. In the following interactive communication, Zhou Jie learned that Yang Hui came from a small town in Yunnan and worked hard in Shanghai alone for many years. She was particularly smart and motivated. Although family background, education and appearance are not as good as Zhou Jie’s, many of Yang Hui’s ideas and attitudes towards some things are surprisingly consistent. Their sense of tacit understanding and mutual understanding make them deeply attracted to each other at the same time.

Every day, there are endless topics to talk about in his interest, and there will be endless happiness when he is with him. Zhou Jie is more and more aware that marriage equality, door-to-door matching and so on are not the whole of true love. Love doesn’t have to be born in the same background, but based on the spiritual harmony and mutual understanding. In this relationship, Zhou Jie and Yang Hui changed each other and grew together. Two people choose each other, Zhou Jie has changed the traditional concept of marriage and love, and the small town guy has also achieved the counterattack of marrying a Shanghai girl.

As a dating service platform that has been committed to building efficient ice-breaking, high-frequency interaction and multi-interest links for single young people, the real high rate of single-off-order of Taqu APP is an accurate cut-in to the actual single-off demand of single groups, and on the other hand, technology empowers single groups to intelligently match the needs of the other half, which greatly reduces the time cost and energy input cost of single young people in finding the right other half, and it is easy to find the right other half in Taqu APP.

"Going to the Grassroots in the Spring Festival" The Jiming Three Provinces Bridge is open to traffic! 1 minute from Sichuan to Yunnan for the inter-provincial delegation year.

The villagers happily blew lusheng across the bridge.
The villagers happily blew lusheng across the bridge.
Sichuan News Network, Chengdu, January 21 ST (Reporter Dai Yuling’s photo report)On the eve of the Spring Festival in 2020, the sound of reeds came from the "Jiming Three Provinces" at the junction of Yunnan, Guizhou and Sichuan provinces, and the Jiming Three Provinces Bridge across the Chishui River was finally opened to traffic! "Open to traffic! Open to traffic! " Villagers in Chahe Village, Shuiliao Yi Township, xuyong county, Luzhou, used musical instruments to spread the joy to Yunnan across the bridge.
The Jiming Three Provinces Bridge was completed and opened to traffic today (provided by the Provincial Communications Department)
One minute’s drive and 300 meters’ walk. The Three Provinces Bridge is open to traffic!
The "three provinces of crowing" is located between Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou provinces. It is said that there is a story that "the golden rooster crows all over the three provinces". However, although it is said that a rooster can be heard in three provinces, the traffic between the three places is a big problem. Throughout history, this place has been a geographical corner, with traffic jams and extremely difficult communication.
The local people told reporters that because the Chishui River and Weihe River meet here, in the past, if they wanted to reach Yunnan from Sichuan, they had to take a detour to Tanchang, paddy fields, Potou and other towns and villages and drive for two and a half hours. It takes one and a half hours to climb the mountain and cross the river, but there are some safety hazards, such as windy and rainy, rising water, foggy river, simple ferry structure and limited life-saving equipment.
Now, after the completion of the Jiming Three Provinces Bridge, the travel mode of people’s fishing boats crossing the river has been completely changed, and the cross-strait traffic distance has been shortened geometrically. It takes only one minute to drive across the bridge to reach the other side, and the walking distance is only 300 meters, which greatly saves travel time and will completely eliminate the safety hazards of cross-strait residents crossing the river.
"It is open to traffic before the Spring Festival, so it is convenient to visit relatives in the New Year." Wang Sicai, a villager in Tianba Village, Shuiliao Township, dressed in Miao costumes and blowing reeds onto the bridge, told reporters excitedly that the wishes of several generations have finally come true and he is happy to express it with music. "In the past, I had to transport the crispy plums to the other side for sale. I could only carry forty or fifty kilograms and walk for four or five hours. Now, it can be transported in ten minutes by truck. There is also a farmhouse in the village to entertain tourists. In the future, walnuts and crisp plums will be expanded, and more and more villagers are willing to return to their hometowns to start businesses. The bridge has passed, which has brought us many good opportunities. "
The reporter learned that the design speed of the bridge is 40 km/h, the design load is highway -I, the bridge length is 286.4 meters, the net span of the main bridge is 180 meters, and the main arch ring adopts cantilever casting construction technology. The width of the bridge deck is 11.5m (9m carriageway+1.25m sidewalks on both sides), the total length of the approach road at the bridgehead of Sichuan Bank is 637.88m, the total length of the approach road at the bridgehead of Yunnan Bank is 140.6m, and the total length of the route is 1041.3m, with two lanes in both directions.
The Jiming Three Provinces Bridge was completed and opened to traffic today (provided by the Provincial Communications Department)
 Inter-provincial group year becomes simple "full of love journey" love chartered car
The reporter learned that it coincides with the Lunar New Year holiday. With the full completion of the Jiming Bridge in three provinces, at the strong request of the people on both sides of the strait, the Transportation Bureau of xuyong county, Sichuan Province and the Transportation Bureau of Zhenxiong County, Yunnan Province reached a framework agreement to connect buses, and on January 21st, three "full journey" love chartered cars were launched. Next, the transportation departments of the two places will improve the relevant procedures as soon as possible, and start customized passenger transportation from Shuiliao Township, xuyong county, Sichuan Province to Potou Town, Zhenxiong County, Yunnan Province, so as to provide convenient, safe, warm and comfortable travel services for the people on both sides of the strait, so that the local people can truly feel the care of the transportation departments and let the people have more sense of gain, satisfaction and happiness in the transportation field.
"Dead ends" and "revitalization" of tourism resources will inject new vitality into rural revitalization.
He Xiaotao, deputy director of the Agricultural Construction Department of the Highway Bureau of the Sichuan Provincial Department of Transportation, told reporters that in addition to facilitating the travel of ordinary people, the completion and opening of the Jiming Bridge in the three provinces is also conducive to promoting the economic development of the three provinces on both sides of the strait. The poor wumeng mountain, where the Jiming Three Provinces Bridge is located, has been a traffic corner for thousands of years, and has always been a backward and poor area in history. The xuyong county of Sichuan and Zhenxiong County of Yunnan, which it connects, are all state-level poverty-stricken counties, facing Qixingguan District of Bijie City, Guizhou Province across the river. The coal and pyrite in Yunnan can’t be delivered, and the crisp plums and tobacco in Xuyong, Sichuan are difficult to transport. The inconvenient transportation makes many scenic and ingenious tourism resources in Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou unable to meet each other. The completion of the bridge will help to implement the poverty alleviation policy, which will further promote the development of coastal economy and industry and increase farmers’ income; It will further help the development of the tourism industry, and all the "dead ends" of local rich tourism resources will be "revitalized"; It will further boost wumeng mountain’s poverty alleviation and prosperity, win the battle against poverty, and inject new vitality into rural revitalization; It will further supplement and optimize the layout of inter-provincial passages between Sichuan and Yunnan, and promote the development of regional economic and social integration.
In addition, the bridge is the inheritance of the red spirit. Chishui River and Ancient Yi Holy Land. It used to be the marching place where the Central Red Army crossed Chishui, and the famous three provinces of Jiming were held. The completion of the bridge will further promote the development of local red tourism.
The Jiming Three Provinces Bridge was completed and opened to traffic today (provided by the Provincial Communications Department)
It is estimated that by the end of 2020, car crossings and passenger crossings with annual traffic volume exceeding 50,000 passengers can be basically eliminated in Sichuan.
There are many rivers in our province, and people in some economically underdeveloped areas have to travel by ferry. According to statistics, by the end of 2012, there were 1718 ferries in the province, which brought a lot of inconvenience to people living and traveling along the river and facing the water. In order to eliminate the hidden dangers of ferry transportation and improve the production and living conditions of the masses along the river and near the water, the provincial party Committee and government attach great importance to the construction of ferry bridge reconstruction project as a major livelihood project.
With the completion of a large number of ferry bridge-changing projects, the water travel conditions of the ferry in our province have been greatly improved, the potential safety hazards have been effectively rectified, and the transportation network has been further improved, which has provided a strong transportation guarantee for the county’s economic and social development and farmers’ prosperity.
It is estimated that by the end of 2020, car crossings and people crossings with annual traffic volume exceeding 50,000 passengers can be basically eliminated, effectively solving the troubles of people who are near the water for wading or long-distance detours. He Xiaotao told the reporter, "The Jiming Three Provinces Bridge is also the 36th highway passage on Chishui River, and it is also another highway outlet in our province. Its completion has provided strong road traffic support for promoting high-quality poverty alleviation in the contiguous poverty-stricken areas of Wumeng Mountain and promoting the" four-way expansion and global opening "strategy of the provincial party committee and government."
(Some pictures are provided by the Sichuan Provincial Department of Transportation)

Beijing Ski Open, the first mass event held by National Alpine Ski Center, was held.

On January 21st, Yanqing National Alpine Ski Center ushered in the first mass skiing competition of the venue. The second Beijing Ski Open was held here, attracting nearly 200 skiers from Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, Shanghai, Zhejiang and Sichuan.

Hosted by Beijing Social Sports Management Center and Yanqing District Sports Bureau, and undertaken by Beijing Skiing Association, Beijing National Alpine Skiing Co., Ltd. and Beijing Kaihong Sports Culture Co., Ltd., this competition is the largest national fitness skiing event in Beijing at present. There are two events in the competition: alpine skiing giant slalom and snowboarding giant slalom, which are divided into two groups: teenagers and adults, and 12 groups are set according to gender and age. The competition is open to the public, and all snow friends under 60 can participate.

The success of the Beijing Winter Olympics has promoted the rapid development of mass ice and snow sports in this city, and more and more teenagers and adults have participated in skiing. This open competition makes full use of the legacy of the Winter Olympics, aiming at creating a model of high-level national fitness events and boosting the sustained and high-quality development of Beijing’s ice and snow sports with brand events.

In terms of competition organization, the referee team of this competition has presided over the Beijing Winter Olympics and the Winter Paralympics, fully ensuring the professionalism, safety and fairness of the competition; The competition venue is the alpine skiing field of Beijing Winter Olympics, and it is also the only venue in China with a standard track for the Winter Olympics. It not only provides the contestants with the opportunity to experience the Winter Olympics track, but also vividly reflects the good management and good use of Beijing’s Winter Olympics heritage in the post-Winter Olympics era. As for the service guarantee of the competition, the organizing committee has formulated a scientific and perfect scheme, and comprehensively improved the participation experience in medical care, logistics supply and live broadcast of the competition. At the same time, the organizing Committee also set up a "warm-hearted viewing area" to provide escort certificates for parents of minors, so that relatives and friends of small players can also feel the charm of alpine skiing at close range and share the glorious moment.

This year’s competition settled in Yanqing, which is also the perfect integration of alpine skiing events and "beautiful Yanqing, the summer capital of ice and snow". The success of the Games further consolidated and expanded the achievement of "driving 300 million people to participate in ice and snow sports", and promoted the construction of Yanqing District as an "outdoor sports city" and the most beautiful winter Olympic city with ecological civilization. Next, the National Alpine Ski Center will hold the 14th National Winter Games Alpine Ski Competition, and the "Snow Swallow" is flying with wings to welcome visitors from all directions.


The sexiest beauty in the world has 162 goddesses waiting for you to enjoy.

Original title: 162 goddesses are waiting for you to enjoy the sexiest beauty in the world.

& & Title &&The sexiest beauty in the world! 162 goddesses are waiting for you to enjoy. In this article, we will take you to enjoy a visual feast and enjoy 162 most attractive women from all over the world. Their beautiful styles vary from sweet and lovely girls to mature and attractive goddesses. Let’s explore the feast of the sexiest beauty in the world and find your favorite!

The strongest AI beauty artifact on the surface, Xiaobai can also get started immediately, free for a limited time, click on the experience →

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Knowledge post! Why is the "blizzard" mentioned in the weather forecast, and the snowfall is only a dozen millimeters?

  CCTV News:The Central Meteorological Observatory continued to release on the 3rd.Blizzard yellow warningAffected by the eastward movement of the south branch trough and the southward cold air, there will be a large-scale rain and snow weather process in most parts of central and eastern China today and tomorrow, with moderate to heavy snow in the eastern part of northwest China, southwestern part of North China, most of Huanghuai, Jianghan and Jianghuai. Among them, there are blizzards in parts of central and southern Shaanxi, western and northern Hubei, southern Henan and northern Jiangsu and Anhui (10~ 18 mm), local snowstorm.

  Seeing the weather forecast, many netizens were puzzled: didn’t they say "Blizzard"? Why is it only a few tens of millimeters? It’s not as thick as the sole. You must be mistaken! It should be in centimeters!

  Is it true that the meteorological department made a mistake in measurement? Of course not! In fact, it is like this:Snowfall and snow depth are two different concepts. Snowfall does not refer to the snow depth, but the precipitation value in winter.

  How is the snowfall level divided?

  The snowfall level is not divided according to the thickness of snow on the ground. According to the standards of the meteorological department, due to the size, shape and density of snow falling on the ground, the snowfall isAccording to the amount of water after the snow melts, divided into multiple levels from low to high.. The snowfall levels are as follows:

  Light snow: the snowfall within 12 hours is less than 1.0 mm (equivalent to the amount of melted rain, the same below).

  Medium snow: the snowfall is 1.0 ~ 3.0mm in 12 hours or 2.5 ~ 5.0mm in 24 hours.

  Heavy snow: snowfall is 3.0 ~ 6.0mm in 12 hours or 5.0 ~ 10.0mm in 24 hours.

  Blizzard: The snowfall is more than 6.0 mm in 12 hours or more than 10.0 mm in 24 hours.

  In many places, sometimes the snowfall will be much greater than 10 mm, so many places and forecasts also introduce the concepts of heavy blizzard and heavy blizzard with reference to the two levels of heavy rainstorm and heavy rainstorm.

  Blizzard: A snowfall process in which the snowfall is 20.0 ~ 30.0 mm within 24 hours.

  Heavy snowstorm: the process of snowfall with a snowfall of more than 30 mm within 24 hours.

  In addition, in life, we occasionally see snow falling, but it can’t form snow. This kind of snowfall is called "sporadic light snow".

  Now, I finally know why the snowfall of more than ten millimeters can be called blizzard ~

  Source of this article: CCTV News Synthesis, China Weather Network, China News Network.

Financial institutions pay close attention to "electric fraud" and stop losses in time to warm people’s hearts.

Zhongxin. com Shanxi News, January 10th Recently, China Bank Yuncheng Ruicheng Sub-branch received a special customer, Ms. Liu. In the process of handling business, Ms. Liu told the lobby manager that she had received a phone call from "customer service of a certain platform", saying that she had launched the service of "e-commerce live member of a certain platform". If she did not cancel the service, she would be charged 500 yuan every month for 12 consecutive months, totaling 6,000 yuan. Ms. Liu asked to cancel this service, and the other party guided her to download a new APP. After the download was completed, the other party instructed her to open credit cards, debit cards, etc. through this software, and asked the customer to transfer money to the designated bank account. At the same time, Ms. Liu also received a strange phone call from abroad. After analysis and judgment, the lobby manager helped Ms. Liu print out the recent bank card transaction flow and found that there was indeed a sum of money transferred to a strange account.
In order to reduce Ms. Liu’s economic loss, the lobby manager immediately chose to call the police and explained to the police the story of Ms. Liu’s fraud. At the same time, Ms. Liu was guided to handle the daily bank card limit business, and told that Ms. Liu must go to the relevant bank to handle credit card cancellation and other businesses to ensure the safety of her own funds. Finally, the customer thanked the lobby manager after finishing the business.
At present, telecom fraud and fraud are increasingly rampant. As the protector of customers’ property, Bank of China Yuncheng Branch will continue to devote itself to enhancing citizens’ awareness of anti-telecom network fraud through extensive publicity and in-depth education, and at the same time actively take measures to protect customers’ funds and information security, become customers’ financial partners, ensure their financial interests are fully protected, and protect their wealth and dreams! (End)